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#iOSR: Flowering N top-up drive yields

Sponsored by Syngenta

This year’s relatively early and forward oilseed rape crops could be best placed to take advantage of late flowering nitrogen applications, says Syngenta’s James Southgate.

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Longer post-flowering photosynthetic activity could help to drive yields and oil content as the pods fill, Syngenta technical manager James Southgate told iOSR growers.

 

The large green leaf area of vigorous crops would have already taken up a lot of the nutrients applied, so these crops may be best placed to utilise any extra N applied at mid- to late-flowering. “Green leaf area is by far the most efficient at converting sunlight into yield, compared to pods or stems, he advised.

 

“Crops which have retained healthy green leaf from Amistar at mid- to late-flowering can retain significantly greater green leaf area through the post- flowering period to harvest.”

 

James Southgate

Mr Southgate said there was a strong indication lack of sunshine in May and June last year – when radiation levels were 30% below the norm – was a primary cause of disappointing OSR yields. “There is no knowing if it will happen again this year, but it does reiterate the importance of maintaining green leaf area for as long as possible to utilise available light,” he said. “Those crops which held on later last year, even for a few days, were reported to yield better.”

 

He added the greatest benefit in retaining green leaf came from Amistar application at green-bud to early flowering, but there was still a significant effect with later applications from mid-flowering. “Over recent years we have also seen sclerotinia coming in towards the end of flowering.

 

The later application of Amistar has given good control of sclerotinia and other late foliar diseases, such as alternaria,” he advised. “The key thing is that, even in the absence of disease, the yield increase from the green leaf retention always pays. “Although it is important for growers to get the nutrition right so the crop can reach its full potential,” Mr Southgate said.

Seasonal adjustments

Northamptonshire grower Ian Matts has retained 40- 50kg N/hectare of the crop’s allocation for a late flowering top-up.

 

He highlighted his second top-dressing applications were delayed this season and crops had moved through growth stages very quickly, hence he cut back the overall rate at that time. However, that has given greater flexibility in allowance for a flowering foliar N application.

 

“I think there will be a particular benefit this year, due to spring applications going on relatively early and total doses being reasonably low,” said Mr Matts. “If flowering is prolonged, an application later on will help to ensure crops do not run out of steam too early

 

“Fungicides applied to keep the crop green for longer will only work to their full potential if the crop is fed sufficiently as well,” he added. ADAS trials have demonstrated applying 40kg N/ha at late flowering timing increased gross output by an average 0.25 tonnes/ha, through the combination of increased seed yield and oil content of seed.

 

Yara has calculated the expected return on investment of about 3:1 over the cost of liquid fertiliser application – worth around £115/ha at this season’s prices.

Wider rows

Wider rows

However, Lincolnshire iOSR grower Andrew Ward is not convinced by the post- flowering N benefit. In fact, one year he reported yields actually decreased. He argued moving to wider row plantings and using lower seed rates had created bigger, healthier plants which were well able to grow through to harvest without the need for a foliar feed.

 

“I’m convinced with the wide 50cm row concept, and would never go back to conventionally drilled,” he reported. “We get far more branching and pods per stem with wide rows. Light is able to penetrate through the crop, to the floor contributing to a bigger green leaf area.”

 

Mr Ward added all fi elds were growing probably the best OSR he has had for a number of years, with very even, disease-free and vigorous plants. Flowering was about two weeks ahead of normal, despite sowing at the same time in late August and early September.

 

“We have made no change to normal N rate and timings – calculated after carrying out N mins and GAI assessments as crop came out of winter,” he said. “Crops suffered minimal winter damage and GAIs of 1.6-2.3 were up on most years.”

Application advice

Application advice

Since the ADAS trials revealed no signifi cant differences with timing around the flowering period – between the onset of flowering and two weeks after the end of flowering – Yara advocates the application can be tank mixed with a fungicide treatment where appropriate.

 

Syngenta application specialist James Thomas highlighted spraying advice for a tank-mix of Amistar with a foliar N feed should aim to achieve good coverage throughout the crop canopy, but retaining as much spray on the leaf surface and stems as possible.

 

Angled nozzles

 

“We would advocate angled nozzles fitted to alternate facing forwards and backwards along the spray boom. Typically application would be at 200 litres/ha water volume – although in really dense crops there may be an advantage of increasing water volume,” advised Mr Thomas. “However, operators should aim to avoid over wetting leaves which could result in excessive run-off.” Mr Thomas advocates slowing down and using an

 

Amistar nozzle would be a good option. “In tall oilseed rape crops boom height will have to be raised to maintain even pattern across the target zone, but operators should be aware of the risk of drift,” he warned.

 

“If the crop is variable, they will need to adjust the boom height accordingly.” Mr Thomas also said foliar application of nitrogen could result in leaf scorch, particularly in hot or sunny weather, or crops under stress from drought.

 

“Since the key objective of both the Amistar and the nutrient application is to retain green leaf area, it makes sense to apply in the early morning when plants are least stressed, or the evening when it’s not sunny,” he advised.

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