Engine firms are gearing up to meet forthcoming Stage 5 emissions regulations, as Geoff Ashcroft found out at the recent Bauma construction show in Munich.
Fendt is a big user of Deutz engines, with the German engine maker showing at Bauma how its motor's might develop.
EGR: Exhaust gas recirculation
SCR: Selective catalytic reduction
DPF: Diesel particulate filter
DOC: Diesel oxidation catalyst
DEF: Diesel exhaust fluid
Engine manufacturers used the recent Bauma show to lay out their intended plans for meeting forthcoming Stage 5 emission regulations.
Although the show focuses on the construction industry, expect engine suppliers to offer the same power units to agricultural machinery makers too.
Claas for example, has recently taken on Perkins’ latest 12.5-litre engine for its Lexion 760 combine. Fendt is a long-standing customer of Deutz AG, whose new TCD 5.0 could potentially see the Bavarian tractor maker push its 500-series four-cylinder range beyond 200hp, perhaps with a 520 Vario model.
While the emissions numbers that determine Stage 5 regulations have yet to be finalised, what we do know is that come January 2019, compliance will be required.
Cummins has revealed a new generation of ultra-low emission diesel engines that have been engineered with forthcoming EU Stage 5 emissions in mind.
These include the F3.8, B4.5, B6.7 and L9 versions with capacities from 3.8 to 9 litres, spanning 100-430hp.
Significantly, Cummins has ditched EGR with these power units, creating a mechanically simpler package that appears to deliver the holy grail of more power, more torque and lower fluid consumption, while maintaining the same capacity as the engines they replace.
Operating costs will be further reduced through 1,000-hour oil change service intervals, while smarter electronics will see stop-start technology added to the package.
Exhaust after-treatment for Stage 5 is said to use a single module combining a DPF, SCR and urea dosing technology in a package that has been reduced in size by up to 50 per cent, with a weight saving of up to 30 per cent.
Deutz AG has revealed an all-new engine platform called the TCD 5.0. This five-litre, four-cylinder engine slots between existing 4.1-litre TCD 4.1 and 6.1-litre TCD 6.1 engines.
Offering a power range initially from 135-200hp, Deutz says a high-power version will follow.
The TCD 5.0 occupies the same space as the smaller capacity TCD 4.1, but brings many changes. One of which is a single overhead camshaft design with maintenance-free hydraulic tappets.
Deutz says this development offers scope for variable valve timing in the future, along with better heat management for exhaust after-treatment packages.
The company sees the TCD 5.0 as an option for those looking to substitute a larger engine without sacrificing power, or it can offer a performance increase for existing engines with the same footprint.
Using a single turbocharger and charge-air cooling, this latest addition to the TCD portfolio uses cooled EGR along with DOC, DPF and SCR to make the engine Stage 5 ready.
John Deere Power Systems says its current engine line-up is already capable of meeting the expected Stage 5 emissions levels as a result of it fitting DPF technology to meet current emissions requirements.
It expects Stage 5 to demand even lower particulate matter content, and this will dictate the use of diesel particulate filters - technology that Deere has been using since the introduction of Stage 3b in 2011.
As a result, Deere will continue to use a combination of existing technologies, including cooled EGR, adding that a smaller SCR package should also be achievable.
Away from engines, the firm is offering integrated solutions for powertrain electrification for original equipment manufacturers. Such technology has been operational on JD 644K and 944K Hybrid wheeled loaders, and over 200,000 hours of operating time, shortening the development processes.
Powertrain electrification has seen the conventional torque converter and powershift transmission replaced by a motor-generator, inverter and electrically driven transmission, to connect the engine and axles. The firm’s larger 944K has taken this a step further with electric wheel motors in its final drives.
Two new compact diesels from Perkins offer more choice for its customers looking to downsize and increase power density within existing machinery.
Called Syncro, the 2.8 and 3.6-litre engines offer power outputs of 73hp and 135hp respectively. Perkins will continue with EGR and DPF technologies, but a new process of EGR management sees recycled exhaust gasses passed through the cylinder head before hitting the intake valve.
This development prevents over-cooling of gases and the unwanted production of condensate, says Perkins, while delivering enough temperature drop to reduce the impact on existing cooling systems.
Perkins has also extended its industrial engine range beyond its previous 7-litre flagship, with the introduction of a large engine platform in 9.3, 12.5, 15.2 and 18.1-litre capacities.
This new platform lets Perkins adapt after-treatment packages and engine control software to meet regional market emissions for Latin America, China and Russia, in addition to Europe and USA.
Power outputs across the large engine platform extend from 415-630hp in Stage 3a guise, and from 450-800hp in Stage 4/5 trim.
Engine manufacturer MTU, a division of Rolls Royce Power Systems, is using a range of technologies to meet the proposed EU Stage 5 emissions regulations that are expected in 2019.
The company’s 1000 and 1500 engine ranges, with power outputs of 135-650hp, will be available with both one-box and two-box exhaust after treatment solutions, including DPF and SCR with diesel exhaust fluid.
While these two engine ranges use Daimler commercial vehicle engines as a base, MTU and Daimler will jointly develop them to meet Stage 5.
MTU is also offering an emissions flex package for new and used engines operating in countries where different emissions requirements and high sulphur diesel are in use.
It enables exhaust after-treatment and SCR systems to be deactivated simply by software, rather than hardware changes, says the company, and opens up markets for machinery resale to lesser regulated countries.
MAN’s latest off-highway engines are said to lay the foundation of its EU Stage 5 emissions regulation strategy.
The two ranges include a six-cylinder 15.2-litre engine offering outputs from 550-650hp and a larger 24.2-litre V12 engine with power outputs from 790-1,100hp. Both currently meet Stage 4 emissions and are also said to be Stage 5 ready.
The six-cylinder engine D3876 engine uses a single, variable geometry turbocharger and a 2,500 bar fuel injection pressure to help reduce emissions without compromising on performance.
Up to 3,000Nm of torque is available from 1,050 to 1,450rpm. The engine currently uses a combination of cooled EGR and SCR exhaust after-treatment to meet current emissions legislation. To meet more stringent EU Stage 5 regulations, MAN says it will need to add only a diesel particulate filter.
MAN’s larger V12 power unit meets current emissions regulations using a dual SCR package – one for each bank of cylinders. Getting the V12 engine to meet EU Stage 5 is said to require a DPF and software changes to the engine control unit.
Caterpillar Industrial Engines has introduced a new version of its C9.3 Acert engine.
Badged the C9.3B, the new power unit retains its six cylinder, 9.3-litre format, but with the deletion of EGR, revised air handling, improved fuel injection and improved electronics, the engine is said to be ready to meet anticipated Stage 5 regulations.
Cat says this new version with simplified architecture is lighter than the C9.3 Acert engine, yet produces 18 per cent more power and 18 per cent more torque. Peak power output is 450hp at 2,200rpm and 2,081Nm of torque at 1,400rpm.
Eliminating EGR has eased the load on cooling pack requirements, says the company, while helping to reduce the size of the DPF and SCR after-treatment package by up to 30 per cent. With revised electronics, the C9.3B uses only one electronic control module compared to three required to run the C9.3 Acert engine.